Article 36 is a UK-based not-for-profit organisation working to prevent the unintended, unnecessary or unacceptable harm caused by certain weapons. Article 36 undertakes research, policy and advocacy and promotes civil society partnerships to respond to harm caused by existing weapons and to build a stronger framework to prevent harm as weapons are used or developed in the future. The name refers to article 36 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I of the Geneva Conventions that requires states to review new weapons, means and methods of warfare.
Article 36 operates from a principle that practical, policy and legal controls over weapons should be founded on publicly transparent and evidence-based analysis. Such controls should aim for prevention of unintended, unnecessary or unacceptable harm and should be open to ongoing review. The standards of analysis should be the same whether the population likely to be put at risk by specific weapons is domestic or foreign and whether the weapons are intended to be lethal or for coercion.
At an international level, Article 36:
* Hosts and provides coordination for the International Network on Explosive Weapons (INEW);
* Is on the International Steering Group of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN);
* Is a founder of and on the Steering Committee of the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots;
* Is a founding member of the Every Casualty Campaign.
At a national level in the UK, Article 36:
* Coordinates civil society advocacy on landmines, cluster munitions and explosive weapons in the UK;
* Provides voluntary facilitation for the All Party Parliamentary Group on Weapons and the Protection of Civilians;
* Is a member of the UK Working Group on Arms;
* Is a member of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) UK.
Article 36 has also developed an introduction to working in global civil society coalitions and is establishing web-based resources to share expertise across NGO coalitions internationally.
Article 36 was established in 2011 by Thomas Nash and Richard Moyes.
Richard Moyes is Managing Director at Article 36. He was previously Director of Policy at Landmine Action, and Co-Chair of the Cluster Munition Coalition. Prior to that he established and managed explosive ordnance disposal projects for the UK NGO Mines Advisory Group. He is an Honorary Fellow at the University of Exeter.
Laura Boillot (née Cheeseman) is Programme Manager for Article 36. Laura previously worked as a Campaign Manager and subsequently as the Director of the Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC) towards the negotiation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, and its subsequent universalisation and implementation. Prior to that she worked as Program Officer working on the Control Arms campaign and on issues related to gun control for the International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA).
Maya Brehm is an Advisor (Geneva Representative) for Article 36. Maya previously worked as a researcher in weapons law at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights, focusing on autonomous weapon systems, and as a lecturer and course coordinator at the Geneva Centre for Education and Research in Humanitarian Action. Prior to that, she managed a project on the norms of explosive weapons at the UN Institute for Disarmament Research.
Elizabeth Minor is an Advisor for Article 36. She was previously a researcher at Every Casualty and Oxford Research Group, where she launched the global Casualty Recorders Network, and was responsible for studies into the methodologies and practices used in the field of documenting and recording the casualties of armed conflict and violence. She also sits on the Board of the NGO Airwars.
Anna de Courcy Wheeler is an Advisor for Article 36. Anna previously worked as a Senior Analyst at International Crisis Group, where her work focussed on international humanitarian norms, law, and conflict prevention, and at The Freedom Fund, an anti-slavery organisation. Prior to that she was a Fellow at Columbia’s School of International Political Affairs where she worked on conflict prevention, and NYU’s Law School, where she worked as part of a team supporting the UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial Executions. Anna began her career in Rwanda, investigating and documenting crimes committed during the 1994 genocide, and working on post-genocide access to justice.
Article 36 is incorporated in the UK as a not-for-profit company limited by guarantee (Company No. 07755941). It is overseen by a Advisory Board with backgrounds in advocacy, law, academia and finance.
Advisory Board (*denotes formal Board of Directors)
Dr. John Borrie
Dr. John Borrie is a senior researcher and policy advisor at the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) in Geneva, Switzerland. John’s work has covered many aspects of arms control and disarmament, and he has published extensively on these and related topics. Prior to joining UNIDIR, John worked at the International Committee of the Red Cross and before that was Deputy Head of Mission for Disarmament in Geneva with the New Zealand Government. His most recent book is Unacceptable Harm: A History of How the International Treaty to Ban Cluster Munitions Was Won. John is an Associate Fellow at Chatham House.
Simon Conway served in the British army with the Black Watch and the Queens’ Own Highlanders. After leaving the military he worked for The HALO Trust clearing land mines and unexploded ordnance in Cambodia, Kosovo, Abkhazia, Eritrea and Sri Lanka. As Director of Landmine Action he set up and ran clearance projects in Western Sahara and Guinea Bissau. As co-Chair of the Cluster Munition Coalition he successfully campaigned for an international treaty to ban cluster bombs. Simon Conway’s novels include Damaged, Rage, A Loyal Spy and Rockcreek Park.
Jonathan Fell is a founding partner of Ash Park Capital, a specialist fund management company focused on investments in the global fast-moving consumer goods industry. Prior to 2013 he worked as an equity research analyst following the tobacco and beverages sectors at the investment banks Merrill Lynch, Morgan Stanley and, most recently, Deutsche Bank.
Gry Larsen has been National Director or CARE Norway since January 2015. She previously served as a State Secretary in the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. As State Secretary she worked on a range of development, humanitarian and security issues, including human rights, conflict resolution and disarmament, the UN and global health. Her political career started when she became active in the Norwegian Labour Youth, and she served as the President of the Norwegian Labour Youth from 2002 until 2006. She was also Political Adviser for the Foreign Minister before she was appointed State Secretary in 2009. Her academic background is in History, Norwegian and International Politics.
Dr. Patricia Lewis is a British and Irish nuclear physicist and arms control expert, who is currently the Research Director for International Security at Chatham House. She was previously the Senior Scientist-in-Residence and Deputy Director at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at Monterey Institute of International Studies (MIIS). Before her time at MIIS Patricia was the Director of the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) and the Director of VERTIC. Patricia publishes widely on all aspects of arms control and disarmament issues.
Richard Lloyd joined Which? in April 2011 as Executive Director. Richard has over 20 years’ experience of campaigning, policy-making and service provision in charities, housing agencies and local government. Richard has also worked for two years in No10 Downing Street as a Special Adviser to the Prime Minister, dealing with economic issues across the government, including strategy, communications and consumer policy.
Sapna Malik is a partner at Leigh Day, with over 12 years’ litigation experience. She has been identified by Chambers Guide to the Legal Profession 2012 as “having established an impressive reputation for handling work at the intersection of human rights and personal injury law.” Sapna joined Leigh Day as a trainee in 1996, qualified as a solicitor in 1998 and was made a partner in 2005. In 2010 Sapna was invited by the Foreign Secretary to join an advisory group on Human Rights.
Article 36’s work has been supported by:
J Leon Foundation
The Future of Life Institute, in partnership with Arizona State University
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Ireland (through Irish Aid)
Canadian Department of National Defence, Defence Engagement Programme